Am 16. August 1205, so die Halberstädter Bischofschronik, kehrte Bischof Konrad von Krosigk reich beladen mit Heiligenreliquien und weiteren Kostbarkeiten an seinen Bischofssitz in Halberstadt zurück. Er war am Vierten Kreuzzug beteiligt gewesen, der zwar das islamisch besetzte Jerusalem zum Ziel hatte, jedoch mit der Plünderung Konstantinopels 1204 endete. Christen, die eine christliche Stadt plündern, Kirchen schänden, Reliquien rauben: Bereits in zeitgenössischen Quellen wurde Kritik geäußert. Finden sich Spuren dieser Kritiken in dem Halberstädter Dokument?
kommentiert von Isabelle Dolezalek
nach: Georg Heinrich Pertz (Hg.), Chronica aevi Suevici, Monumenta Germaniae Historica inde ab anno Christi quingentesimo usque ad annum millesimum et quingentesimum, Bd. 23, Stuttgart u. a. 1874, S. 116-121.
Ac in die palmarum debitam in Quidelingheburch sollempnitatem agens, infra sermonem ad populum ad obsequium Ihesu Christi et succursum terre sancte crucis signaculo se signavit, ingens omnium qui aderant gaudium in tristiciam inopinam subito convertendo. […]
Qui cum per Boemiam iter dirigeret, inclitus domnus Odoacer Boemorum rex et frater eius marchio Moravie honorifice eum recipientes, necessariis ei uberrime ministrantes, per terram suam conduci fecerunt. Terra quoque illustrium principum, ducis Austrie, deinde Salzeborgensis episcopi, post hec Aquileiensis patriarche pertransiens, aliquanta etiam apud eos mora facta, in omnibus benignissime pertractatus, ab ipsis tandem ducente Domino Idus Aug. Venecias pervenit […]
 Verum domnus Conradus episcopus dum, ut dictum est, Venecias pervenisset, peregrinorurn ibidem multitudinem repperit copiosam. […] Huius igitur peregrinationis originem et processus ordinem scire cupientibus, quantum brevitas huius conpendii admiserit, succincte pandam. […]
Qui [domnus Fulco, domnus Nivelungus Suessionensis, domnus Henricus Trecensis, comes Theobaldus de Campania, comes Lodewicus et fratre suo Blesenses, comes Baldwinus et Henricus de Flandria etc.] talem pactionem cum Venetis inierunt, ut ipsi peregrinis omnibus navigium providerent et per anni circulum cum triginta milibus armatorum exercitui subservirent, eisque pro tali obsequio centum milia marcas promittentes, per obsides et per iuratoriam cautionem securitatem fecerunt. […] Ad diem itaque diffinitum cum peregrini omnes Venecias convenissent […], de pecunia Venetis danda nec etiam medietatem persolvere potuerunt. Unde in insula beati Nycolai Veneti eos detinent tanquam captivos nec redire sinunt, donec solvant debitum universum. Post multam igitur utriusque partis animadversionem tandem tale consilium habuerunt, quod Veneti sicut pepigerunt cum peregrinis vadant, et peregrini Venetos ad vindicandas suas iniurias adiuvent, et quidquid lucrari possint inter eos eque distributum, de peregrinorum portione residuum pacte pecunie Venetis persolvatur.
Verum domnus Conradus episcopus cum fuisset ab hiis conditionibus alienus, domni Petri Capuani, apostolice sedis legati, quid ei foret in tali articulo faciendum, consilium requisivit. Qui respondit, plane domnum papam quodlibet inconveniens eorum dissimulare velle potius, quam peregrinationis huius expeditio solveretur, eique finale dedit consilium, ne ipse aliquo modo ab exercitu recederet, sed super insolenciis eorumdem hoc quod facere posset toleret. Ipse igitur […] exercitui se adiunxit.
Anno itaque incarnationis Christi 1202., Kalendis Octobris omnis exercitus conscensis navibus navigandi iter arripientes, aura secunda in vigilia beati Martini portum civitatis Iadhere contigerunt. […]
 Per hiemem itaque penes Iadharam conmorantibus peregrinis, serenissimus rex Philippus intelligens eorumdem necessitatem, et a rebus exhaustos esse; et pecunie Venetis persolvende maximam adhuc partem restare, et quod iam evolveretur annus quo eis tenebantur Veneti navigio et exercitu suo servire, prudenter animadvertit, quam plurimum terre sancte consultum esse, si socer eius Ysachius rex Grecorum eorum adiutorio regnum suum, a quo ipse violenter eiectus erat, posset recuperare. […] si ipsi socerum suum regno restituerent, ipse eis ducenta milia marcarum pollicebatur se daturum et navigium et victualia per annum peregrinis provisurum. […] Hoc negocium uniformiter assumpserunt. […]
Tandem ducente Domino Constantinopolin sunt advecti. Quam prodigiose autem per exercitum tam humilem quam despectum Dominus operatus sit miracula, qualiterque civitate obsessa et capta, adolescens prememoratus una cum patre suo Ysachio in sede regia fuerit restitutus, et ipse ingratus beneficiorum acceptorum exercitui se opponens, a Grecis fuerit interfectus, qualiterque ultimo civitate capta, Alexius. Alexio superpositus fugatus fuerit; et ab Alexio Alexii patruo exoculatus, et a Latinis captus et in civitate precipitatus et distractus, et qualiter civitate possessa a Latinis, Baldwinus comes Flandrie imperator in ea fuerit constitutus, […] multaque alia ibidem miraculose peracta, quoniam specialem requirunt tractatum, in hoc conpendio visa sunt non esse interserenda.
Anno autem incarnationis Domini 1204. domno Baldwino comite Flandrie in imperatorem Grecorum elevato 16. Kal. Septembris, domnus Conradus Halberstadensis episcopus peregrinationis sue vota persoluturus a Constantinopoli ad terram sanctam iter arripuit navigandi, […] Domino conducente Tyrum pervenit, unde ad cardinales apostolice sedis legatos continuo ad civitatem Acon transivit.
Sed ipsi cardinales propter excommunicationem, quam Prenestinus episcopus in eum tulerat, cautionem recipientes ab eo, quod ipse ad domnum papam personaliter accederet, ipsum absolverunt, pape super hoc suas litteras destinantes. […]
 Cum igitur ipse in partibus transmarinis tam laudabiliter quam honorabiliter deguisset, in muris Tyri, qui cum universa civitate ex terre motu corruerant, diligentissime reparandis, in pauperum multitudinem cottidie reficiendo, ecclesias undique et personas ecclesiasticas caritative visitando eisque res suas liberaliter erogando, captivis quoque et peregrinis elemosinas suas misericorditer transmittendo, denique omnibus indigentibus munificencie sue gratiam uberius impendendo, iam pene universis rebus suis expensis, tandem 3. Kal. April. ad repatriandum navem conscendit. […]
Exinde divina clementia eos benignius intuente, aura secunda vecti tandem in vigilia pentecostes ad portum Venecie dante Domino sunt advecti, […] Ipse autem episcopus genti Venetorum dilectus non modicum et acceptus, ab ipsis tanquam eorum pater et dominus est receptus. […] Relicta autem ibi suppellectile sua, continuo Romam ivit. […]
 Cardinalibus igitur ceterisque omnibus conpacientibus periculis eius ac laboribus que perpessus erat, causa ipsius nimirum penes domnum papam facta est favorabilis ac benigna. Gratie itaque sue plenissime eum restituit omnesque petitiones suas benigne recepit. […]
Ipse igitur per Bononiam rediens, quoscumque de sua terra Rome invenerat et qui de scolis repatriare volebant in suis expensis secum reduxit. Appropinquanti autem terre sue illustris domnus Bernardus dux Saxonie et multitudo nobilium militum ac ecclesie sue ministerialium ipsi obviam occurrentes, eum ingenti gaudio receperunt.
Cum quibus usque ad civitatem progrediens, thesaurum tam preciosum quam salutiferum, reliquias scilicet sanctorum quas adduxit super feretrum inpositas ac decenter ornatas sibi preferri fecit. Venit igitur universa civitas cleri ac populi, prelatique et totius dyocesis cleriei et honesti viri necnon et provinciarum adiacencium populus infinitus, et de civitate obviam isti a longius procedentes, cum tante eum sollempnitatis tripudio receperunt qualis vel quanta a nullo umquam visa erat.
Et merito venerandum antistitem qui venerat conclamabant in nomine Domini benedictum. Ipse enim secum sanctorum pignora apportavit, cum quibus indubitanter pax et salus patrie sunt illata. […] Penuria eciam temporis, que diu terram afflixerat, in pristine ubertatis statum continuo est mutata. Merito igitur in talium patronorum adventu gaudendum erat, per quos utique fames, pestilentia, mortalitas, sediciones et bella undique opitulante Domino quieverunt.
Feliciter itaque domnus episcopus hiis onustus cum ingenti gaudio et exultatione usque ad ecclesiam beati Stephani est perductus, ubi in introitu eius clerici eius laboribus feliciter in Domino consummatis allacriter alludentes, responsorium Iustum deduxit Dominus iocundis vocibus cantaverunt.
Faciens autem sermonem ad populum, quos, quales et quantos meruissent habere patronos patenter eis ostendit. Hec autem sunt reliquie quas adduxit: sanguis domini nostri Ihesu Christi, de ligno Domini, de sepulchro Domini, de spinea corona Domini, de syndone eiusdem et de sudario, de veste purpurea, de spongia et arundine, de socularibus eiusdem, de capillis beate Marie virginis et de vestimentis eius, de craneo sancti Iohannis baptiste et de capillis eiusdem et vestimentis et digitum unum, tybia sancti Petri et de capillis eius et de vestimentis, caro sancti Pauli apostoli, reliquie Andree, brachium Symonis apostoli, caput totale Iacobi fratris Domini, scapula Philippi apostoli, brachium Barnabe apostoli et omnium apostolorum reliquie; de craneo sancti Stephani prothomartiris cum cubito eius, brachium Clementis pape, reliquie sancti Laurencii, Cosme et Damiani, Iohannis et Pauli, Georgii, Procopii, Theodorii, Demetrii, Abel iusti, Processi et Martiniani, Pantaleonis, Hermolai, Hermagore, digitus sancti Nicolai,  reliquie Iohannis Crisostomi, Iohannis eleymosinarii, Gregorii Nazianzeni, Basilii, de craneo Marie Magdalene, manus et brachium Euphemie virginis, Lucie, Margarete, Katherine, Barbare et multe alie reliquie sanctorum martirum, confessorum atque virginum, quas enumerare longum esset.
Hunc antem adventus reliquiarum diem domnus episcopus statuit per dyocesin universam, videlicet 16. Kal. Septembris, annua revolutione esse celebrem ac sollempnem. Et ut conventuales ecclesie ad maiorem ecclesiam hac in die faciant stacionem, consolacionem eis honorificam ordinavit. Altare quoque novum in monasterio in honore memoratorum sanctorum erexit, dedicavit et dotavit, ut sanctis fiat eisdem iuge obsequium super illud. […]
Ipse autem Conradus ornatum quem de Grecia attulerat in auro et argento et lapidibus preciosis et purpuris ecclesie beati Stephani contulit, et suppremum altare nobilissima purpura opere consutili auro intexta ac duobus vexillis nobilibus, sanctuarium quoque in circuitu et chorum undique eleganter palliis sericis decoravit. […]
nach: Alfred J. Andrea (Hg. und Übers.), Contemporary Sources for the Fourth Crusade, The Medieval Mediterranean, Bd. 29, Leiden 2008, S. 246-264.
So, on Palm Sunday [Lord Bishop Conrad], while delivering a sermon […] he signed himself with the sign of the Cross in the service of Jesus Christ and for the relief of the Holy Land. This immediately transformed the enormous joy of all who were present to melancholy desolation […]
As he traveled straight through Bohemia, the renowned Lord Ottokar, king of Bohemia and his brother, the margrave of Moravia received him with honors. Providing him most abundantly with necessities, they had him escorted through their land. Moreover, he passed through the land of the illustrious prince, the duke of Austria, then the land of the bishop of Salzburg and, after these regions, the land of the patriarch of Aquileia. He also made moderate stop-overs with them and was treated most kindly by them in all matters. Finally, under the guidance of the Lord, he arrived in Venice on the Ides of August. […] Meanwhile, Lord Bishop Conrad, as was said, had arrived at Venice. There he encountered an abundant multitude of pilgrims […] For those, then, who wish to know, I will succinctly reveal, as far as the brevity of this digest will permit, this pilgrimage’s origin and course of events.
These people [Lord Fulk, Lord Nivelon of Soissons, Lord Henry of Troyes, Count Thibaut of Champagne and Count Louis of Blois with his brother, Count Baldwin and his brother from Flanders and other noblemen] entered into a pact with the Venetians, whereby the Venetians would provide sea passage for all the pilgrims, and for the course of a year would accommodate the army with 30,000 men-at-arms. Promising them 100,000 marks for such service, they entered into a contract […] On the appointed day when all the pilgrims should have assembled in Venice, they were able to pay not even half of the debt owed the Venetians […] Consequently, the Venetians hold them captive on the island of Saint Nicholas and will not permit them to leave until they pay the entire debt. Then after a good deal of heated debate on the subject by both sides, they finally reached the following decision. The Venetians, as they had agreed, would go with the pilgrims, and the pilgrims would aid the Venetians in revenging personal injuries, and whatever they might be able to gain as profit would be distributed equally between them. The remainder of the contractual debt would be paid to the Venetians out of the pilgrims’ portion.
Notwithstanding, Lord Bishop Conrad, inasmuch as he had not been involved in the arrangements, sought the advice of Lord Peter Capuano, legate of the Apostolic See, about what he should do in such a situation. He unequivocally replied that the lord pope would prefer to overlook whatever was unbefitting of them rather than have this pilgrimage campaign disintegrate, and he finally gave him the advice that in no way should he withdraw from the army. Rather, so far as the insolencies of these people were concerned, he should endure what he could. Therefore, he bound himself to the army […]
Accordingly, in the year of Christ’s Incarnation 1202, on the Kalends of October, the entire army took ship. Navigating under a favorable wind, they reached the harbor of the city of Zara on the vigil of the feast of Saint Martin.
[…] As the pilgrims were lingering throughout the winter in possession of Zara [add.: which they had taken for the Venetians], the Most Serene King Philip, perceiving the distress of the same (they were destitute of goods; the bulk of the money still remained to be paid the Venetians, and the year was already slipping away in which the Venetians were obligated to serve them with their fleet and army), prudently observed that it was very much a decision for the Holy Land if his father-in-law Alexius, king of the Greeks, could, with their help, recover his kingdom, from which he had been violently ejected. […] If they reinstated his father-in-law in the kingdom, he personally promised that he would give them 200,000 marks and would supply the pilgrims with sea transportation and foodstuffs for a year. They […] uniformly accepted this deal.
At last, under the Lord’s guidance, they were carried to Constantinople. However, the wondrous manner in which the Lord effected miracles through an army as insignificant as it was underrated; how, following the city’s siege and capture, the aforementioned youth was reinstated on the royal throne, together with his father Isaac, and he, ungrateful for the favors received, setting himself in opposition to the army, was killed by the Greeks; how in the end, once the city was captured, Alexius, put in the place of Alexius was put to flight and was blinded by Alexius, the paternal uncle of Alexius, and was captured by the Latins and hurled headlong and dashed to pieces in the city; how, once the city was controlled by the Latins, Baldwin, count of Flanders, was established as emperor in it […] and the many other things miraculously wrought there: Inasmuch as they require a special essay, they do not appear scattered about in this brief work.
Then in the year of the Lord’s Incarnation 1204, after Lord Baldwin, count of Flanders, had been elevated as emperor of the Greeks, Lord Conrad, bishop of Halberstadt, in order to discharge his pilgrimage vow embarked on a sea voyage from Constantinople to the Holy Land on the sixteenth day before the Kalends of September […]
Under the Lord’s hire, he arrived at Tyre on the Nones of October. From there he traveled on through without delay to the cardinal legates of the Apostolic See at the city of Acre. These cardinals absolved him of the excommunication that the bishop of Palestrina had laid on him, after receiving surety from him that he would personally visit the pope, and they dispatched their letter to the pope on this matter.
[…] After he had lived in the lands across the sea in a manner as worthy of praise as it was honorable, having most conscientiously repaired the walls of Tyre which, along with the entire city, had collapsed as a result of an earthquake, having daily fed a large number of paupers, having visited in charity churches and church people all about and having generously disbursed his goods among them, and also having mercifully sent off his alms to captives and pilgrims, in brief, after having more copiously expended the favor of his generosity on all the poor, so that now he had given away almost all his possessions, then at last, on the second day before the Kalends of April, he boarded a ship homeward bound.
Borne by a following breeze, they finally were carried, by the gift of God, to the port of Venice on the vigil of Pentecost. […] This bishop, esteemed in no little way and approved by the people of Venice, was welcomed by them as though he were their father and lord. […] What is more, leaving behind his baggage there, he immediately went on to Rome.
[…] Since the cardinals and all the others felt compassion because of his perils and the labors he had endured, a favorable and friendly case was doubtlessly presented for him before the Lord Pope. He, accordingly, restored him to his fullest favor and accepted all his petitions kindly […].
Therefore the man returned by way of Bologna, and whomever he had met from his country in the area around Rome, as well as those who wished to return home from the schools, he brought back with him at his own expense. Then, as he approached his land, the distinguished Lord Bernhard, duke of Saxony and a large number of noble knights and ministers of his church, coming out to meet him, greeted him with enormous delight.
Proceeding with them all the way to the city, he arranged to have borne before him, on a bier and suitably bedecked, a treasure as valuable as it was salubrious, that is to say the relics of the saints that he brought back. Consequently, the entire city came, both its clergy and its laity, and the prelates and clerics of the entire diocese, and likewise noblemen and an innumerable body of commoners from neighboring provinces, and advancing out of the city to meet that man farther down the road, they received him with a celebration of such solemnity that its type and magnitude had never before been seen by anyone.
Rightly also they cried out as one a benediction in the name of the Lord on the reverend bishop who had come. For this man carried with him tokens of the saints, in connection with which undoubtedly peace and salvation were introduced to the Fatherland […] Also a time of scarcity, which had afflicted the land for quite a while, was forthwith transformed into an original state of plenty. Therefore, deservedly there was rejoicing in the arrival of such patrons, by virtue of whom, assuredly, famine, pestilence, death, rebellions and wars took their rest in every quarter, with the Lord’s help.
Accordingly, the lord bishop, happily loaded down with these, was guided, with enormous rejoicing and exultation, right up to the church of Saint Stephen. Here at his entrance, the clerics, making cheerful light of his labors which were happily completed in the Lord, sang with merry voices the antiphon “Iustum deduxit Dominus.”
Then, in delivering a sermon to the people, he made clear to them the identity, nature, and number of the patrons they had been worthy of acquiring. These, then, are the relics he brought: the blood of our Lord, Jesus Christ; [portions of] the Lord’s wood, the Lord’s Sepulcher, the Lord’s crown of thorns, His shroud and sudarium, the purple garment, the sponge and reed, the sandals of the same Man; hair from the Blessed Virgin Mary and [portions of] her garments; [a portion of] the skull of Saint John the Baptist, [pieces] of this same man’s hair and garments, and one finger; the shinbone of Saint Peter and [a portion] of his hair and garments, the flesh of Saint Paul the Apostle, relics of Andrew, the arm of Simon the Apostle, the entire head of James, the Lord’s brother, the shoulder of Philip the Apostle, the arm of Barnabus the Apostle, and relics of all the apostles; [a portion of] the skull of Saint Stephen the protomartyr, along with his elbow; the arm of Pope Clement; relics of Saint Lawrence, Cosmas and Damian, John and Paul, George, Procopius, Theodore, Demetrius, Abel the Just, Processus and Martinian, Pantaleon, Hermolaus, Hermagoras, a finger of Saint Nicholas; relics of John Chrysostom, John the Almsgiver, Gregory Nazianzen, and Basil; [a portion of] the skull of Mary Magdalene; the hand and arm of Euphemia the virgin; [relics] of Lucy, Margaret, Katherine, Barbara, many other relics of the holy martyrs, confessors, and virgins, which would be tedious to list.
Moreover, the lord bishop decreed that day of the relics’ arrival, namely the fifteenth day before the Kalends of September, to be a solemn annual festival throughout the entire diocese. So that the church’s conventuals might have a place at the major church on this day, he arranged an honorable mitigation [of the Rule] for them. He even built, dedicated, and endowed a new altar in the monastery in honor of the aforementioned saints, so that there might be perpetual devotion to these same saints on it.
This Conrad, moreover, contributed to the church of Saint Stephen ornamentation of gold, silver, precious stones, and purple cloth, which he had brought from Greece, and he decorated the high altar with a most splendid purple cloth, a work in which gold thread was interwoven, and with two excellent tapestries. He also elegantly decorated the sanctuary round about and the choir throughout with silken cloths.
Die anonym zusammengestellten Gesta episcoporum Halberstadiensis – auch Halberstädter Bischofschronik – dokumentieren Leben und Taten der Bischöfe zu Halberstadt von 780 bis 1209. Der letzte Teil der Gesta (GEH, S. 115-123) ist Konrad von Krosigk (gest. 1225) gewidmet, der von 1201 bis 1208 Bischof von Halberstadt war. Der Text wurde wahrscheinlich um 1209 in seinem Auftrag bzw. unter seiner Aufsicht verfasst (Andrea 2008).